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All Species

Toadflax / Butter and Eggs

Linaria vulgaris

Why is it a problem?

  • Spreads laterally by rhizomes and root fragments
  • Spreads by seeds (up to 30,000 per plant) that remain viable up to 10 years, and are spread by wind, water, and insects
  • Aggressively forms persistent, dense stands that outcompete native plants, particularly for soil moisture
  • Unpalatable and toxic to grazing animals
  • Host for the tobacco mosaic virus
  • Establishes in disturbed places and can spread to adjacent undisturbed sites
  • Listed as noxious in Alaska and many other states and territories

How do I manage this plant?

  • Clean boots and equipment before leaving an area with an infestation
  • Cut, mow, or till before seeds mature to prevent seed production and germination
  • Follow-up treatments are needed for 10 years to eliminate seed bank
  • Reseed with native grasses to increase competition
  • Herbicides are effective

More info on species biology